Blackpool Tramway History 1885 - 1932

The Beginning 

On December 3rd 1884 Blackpool Corporation agreed to use Holroyd Smith's Plans for a tramway where the cars took their power from a slot in the ground. This system is the same kind that London Tramways used until its closure in 1952.   It is known as a conduit system.

After much planning and preparation work, Construction work began on 24th February 1884 with the first rail being laid in March 1885 at Cocker Street with work progressing quickly allowing the first test runs to take place on 29th June 1885.

The first public runs were on the 3rd August 1885, when the service operated by 2 trams being horse drawn began, however this was a false dawn as the trams hadn't actually been licensed and the service was withdrawn.   After this brief setback, the service resumed on 12th August with the trams all being horse drawn due to  problems with the electrical supply.


The tramway was officially opened on 29th September 1885 by Alderman Harwood, the Mayor of Manchester.   Alderman Harwood drove car 5 under electrical power to North Pier.   However the journey wasnt without its problems and the tramway resorted back to horse power with the trams not running under electrical power again until December 1885.    The Blackpool Corporation Tramway therefore became the first electric street tramway in Britain and until 2011 was the last remaining traditional tramway in Britain.      By 1892, the line ran from Cocker Street (Near to the North Pier) to Victoria (South) Pier, the track was mainly single line with many passing places.

The Original Trams

The original trams were a varying sizes of 4 wheeled open topped double deckers.   4 of them were built by Lancaster Carriage and Wagon in 1885, with the other 4 built by Starbuck in the same year.  The trams built by Starbuck were higher capacity than those built by Lancaster.  

There were originally 8 trams (numbered 1 -8) and 2 crossbench trailers (numbered 9 and 10).    The trailers were not used very often and were replaced in 1891 by 2 new open topped double deckers (also numbered 9 and 10) built by GF Milnes.  

One of the original trams, (No 4) which actually ran on the day the system opened, survived scrapping through a series of coincidences and is now on display at the National Tramway Museum at Crich.

Number 4

The survival of tram number 4 is mainly due to a number of lucky decisions. After being withdrawn from service around 1914, the tram was earmarked as a works car but instead it was used as a bread transporter, bringing bread to the troops at the army barracks at Squires Gate during the First World War. A set of doors were cut into one side of the tram.   At the end of the war, it was converted to an overhead line car. After the tram was withdrawn in 1930, it was stored at the back of Bispham Depot and forgotten about for many years. Eventually, when the tramway was celebrating it's 75th anniversary in 1960, it was "rediscovered", driven back to Rigby Road under its own power and restored to near original condition disguised as number 1, the original tram.   Following a further restoration in the 1980's the trolley pole removed and batteries fitted, giving the impression of conduit running. When it returned to Blackpool for the Centenary of the tramway in 1985,  number 1 featured in the procession of trams and had regained it's correct number - number 4. 

Original Fleet for Blackpool Electric Tramway Company
NoBuilttypeseatsbuilderdecks
11885Garden Seat48StarbuckDouble
21885Garden Seat48StarbuckDouble
31885Knifeboard32LancasterDouble
41885Knifeboard32LancasterDouble
51885Knifeboard44LancasterDouble
61885Knifeboard44LancasterDouble
71885Crossbench56StarbuckDouble
81885Crossbench56StarbuckDouble
91885Crossbench Trailer28LancasterSingle
101885Crossbench Trailer28LancasterSingle
9(2)1891Garden Seat48MilnesDouble
10(2)1891Garden Seat48MilnesDouble

Early Problems

Over the first few years of operation, the conduit system was the source of several major problems for the tramway, with the sea and the resulting high tide being the main cause as the Corporation had to use horses to pull the trams as the electrical supply wasn't available. Other problems included a reduction in voltage in the conduit slot as the trams travelled further from the power source (A Substation near the depot), meaning that the system wasn't energy and cost efficient and soon alternative power sources were investigated including overhead lines and Gas power.   

It was also discovered early on that the single track with passing loops severely limited the number of trams that could be used, the headway (15 minute headway at peak times) and the journey time from Cocker Street to Victoria Pier was close to 30 minutes (the distance is around 2 miles).  

Initially there was no official tram stops (except for North Pier and Victoria Pier) with passengers flagging down the trams at any point along the line, this was soon changed with stops placed at short distances apart along the line.



Blackpool expansion and changes

In 1895, the Lytham Road route was built and stretched as far as Station Road.   The line ran down Station Road towards Victoria Pier then joined the prom.   Services then crossed over the road and terminated at Victoria Pier.   An additional 4 double decker trams (numbered 11-14) were built by Lancaster between 1894 and 1896 to operate this additional service.   These four deckers had 2 bogies with 4 wheels in each rather than the usual 4 wheels and were initially open topped and later were closed topped.
 
In 1898 the Blackpool system converted their tram cars to operate from an overhead line as the conduit system was proving to be unreliable and uneconomical to run.   The first two out of 20 High Capacity Dreadnought trams (numbers 15 and 16) that would grace the promenade for the next 35 years were also delivered and introduced into service during 1898, they were initially fitted for conduit running before conversion to work from the overhead line.  

The Dreadnoughts were a design unique to Blackpool.   Built by G.F. Milnes the Dreadnoughts were High Capacity and had double staircases at either end to reach the open top deck.  The driving compartment was located in between the staircase with entrances to the lower deck to the left of the cab.  The remainder of the dreadnoughts were delivered in 2 batches, with 17-26 being delivered in 1900 and 54-61 being delivered in 1902. 

By 1905 when the prom was widened, the tramway was relocated to its own section of prom, taking it off the road away from the traffic.   The tramway was also extended northwards towards Gynn Square, however it would be a few years later that the prom was widened north of the Metropole Hotel through to Gynn Square when the sea wall and Middle Walk was built and the tramway was relocated onto the widened stretch.   This piece of foresight probably ensured that the tramway continued operating whilst all the others in the UK closed.   The only section of tramway along the front that ran on street was around the back of the Metropole Hotel, this pinch point would cause many altercations between trams and road traffic over many years until 2010 when it was finally segregated from the road traffic.  

In 1901, more inland routes began to be developed when a new route was built from Talbot Square, round what at this time was farm land to Marton.  15 double deckers (numbered 27-41) were built by Midland Carriage Works and became known as the Marton Box trams.   Originally built as 4 wheeler trams, they were later fitted converted to bogie trams after some really rough riding caused passengers and crew to complain of feeling sick! 

The opening of the Marton route brought controversy.  A number of cyclists blocked the tracks at the official opening of the new route in protest that the grooved rail was a death trap for them and would cause many accidents.   As if the protest wasn't enough negative publicity, it was soon discovered that the depot fan at the newly built Marton Depot would have to be rebuilt and modified as none of the trams could fit into the sheds due to tight clearances!!!!!   As well as the Marton Box cars, a further 12 double decked trams were delivered (with enclosed top decks except for the balcony ends fitted by 1915).   They were numbered 42- 53 and were known as 'Motherwells' as they were built by Hurst Nelson in Motherwell.   They were mostly withdrawn by 1925 and when scrapped, donated their top covers to the Standard trams.

The Marton line was joined to the Lytham Road Route at Royal Oak.  Meanwhile, a new route was built along Central Drive, linking to the Prom at the Tower and also linking to the Marton Route.   Another route was built from Talbot Square to Layton whilst the Lytham Road Route extended to Squires Gate.   

The Lytham St.Annes tramway company secured running rights into Blackpool, but initially not on the promenade, only running on the Lytham Road
route as far as Station Road. Eventually they were granted running rights on the promenade allowing them to extend their services as far as Gynn Square.

In 1911, a further 7 double decked trams were delivered.   Known as the De Luxe trams, there was 2 separate variations, number 62 - 64 were built as 4 wheelers, however it was discovered that when number 62 was taken for a test run that the 4 wheel bogie was making the ride quality extremely poor as the tram pitched and rolled along the prom.   63 and 64 had already been delivered by this point, so the order was changed and numbers 65-68 were built as bogie trams.    62-64 would receive bogies by 1923 and the trams survived into the 1930's with the last of the type being withdrawn in 1938.  

The fleet was further expanded between 1911 and 1914 with the delivery of 24 Toastrack trams (numbered 69 - 92).   The Toastracks were completely open with 14 swing over seats and open driving positions.   At either end, there was a reversible destination board with Promenade on one side and Circular Tour on the other, held up by 2 poles.   In the centre of the car was the trolley pole and mount with a destination box on the centre.   Eventually the trams were altered to allow for a centre aisle to allow the conductor to safely collect fares.

Following the First World war, a further 6 trams were acquired, this time, they were second hand double decked trams from London United tramways.   Numbered 93 -98, they were put into service, originally with a 4 wheel truck and from 1921, they were fitted with bogies.   All 6 trams were withdrawn from service during 1933.
Merger
In 1920, the Blackpool and Fleetwood company‚Äôs running rights expired and were taken over by Blackpool Corporation.   Blackpool Corporation inherited Blackpool and Fleetwood's 41 trams of various types including, box cars and toastracks, many of these cars being the originals from when the tramroad opened.   The trams were renumbered into the Blackpool Corporation number scheme, with Box Cars 20-24 becoming 101-105, 14-19 becoming 106-111 and 38-41 becoming 112-115.   The Yanks were numbered from 28-34 to 116-122.   The Vanguards were numbered from 35-37 to 123-125 and the racks were renumbered from 1-10 to 126-135 and from 25-27 to 139 - 141.
 
The Corporation immediately made a number of improvements to the system, the first of which was to join both systems at Gynn Square.  Soon after, check rail was laid as far as Bispham to allow the double deck trams from the Promenade and Lytham Road services to run here.   Impressive new station buildings were built at Bispham, Little Bispham and Norbeck (Bispham and Little Bispham shelters are still in use today where as the Norbreck shelter was demolished in 2012) in most cases

replacing small wooden or brick built shelters.   The track layout was changed at Rossall to eliminate a sharp curve. By mid 1920, work on enclosing the partially open sided Yanks to make them suitable for all year round service.   The body sides had 12 windows per side added as side paneling added all along the body side.   

A number of Standard Cars were built over the next few years, beginning with Standard 28 and ending with Standard 177 in 1928.   (The standard trams were numbered in-consecutively).  Most of the Standard cars were built by the Corporation (with a few built by Hurst Nelson in Motherwell, the company who also built the Kilmarnock bogie trams for Glasgow and a number of the original vehicles for the Glasgow Subway).

By 1924 Bold Street Depot in Fleetwood was closed and a loop was built at Fleetwood taking the tramway right up to Fleetwood Ferry and returning on to Lord Street by the shadows of the lighthouse. 'Deluxe' Car 68 was decorated and illuminated for the opening of Princess Parade during 1924 as well.   It would go on to run as the illuminated 'Progress' car from 1925 - 1936.


Sidings were built at Thornton Gate to receive coal wagons delivered by LNER.   The coal wagons were hauled along the tramway by a small electric locomotive from a spur connecting the tramway to the railway line behind Copse Rd Depot in Fleetwood.   The Electric Loco carried out this role until 1949 when the coal was delivered elsewhere, the loco then spent the next few years hauling the weedkiller truck and permanent way wagons up and down the line until 1963 when it was preserved.  The electric Loco is now in use as a depot shunter at Crich Tramway Museum in Derbyshire.    

With more Toastracks needed for the Circular tour, Blackpool Corporation took the decision in 1927 to build their own Toastracks, 6 of these (numbered 161 - 166) were built and put into service.   They didnt have a long service life, having been withdrawn with the outbreak of World War 2 in 1939.  

Of these, 161 found use as a snowplough and water car during the 1940's, 163 became the basis of the Blackpool Belle in the late 1950's.   165 and 166 became the unique television tram.   Following 165's withdrawal and scrapping, 166 was stored until 1972, when it was donated to the National Tramway Museum in Crich, where it has been restored to its former glory.

More new Trams

10 Pantograph cars were built for the North Station Route and delivered in 1928.  They operated between North Station and Fleetwood and also on short workings to Cleveleys all year round before being relegated to seasonal work upon the delivery of Railcoaches to operate the route in 1934. These 10 Pantograph cars were unique in that they operated the route they were intended for when built and delivered, they only operated on the North Station Route and only ever strayed elsewhere on the odd private hire or tour and also when travelling to Rigby Road for repairs until they were withdrawn from service in 1961.   The fact that their destination blinds only contained destinations on the North Station route may have had a factor in this.     

The Pantographs got their name from their method of current collection. The 10 trams were unique at this time on the tramway for using pantographs rather than trolleys.   They did soon receive trolley poles as their pantographs caused havoc for the overhead line team who not only had to top up the grease trays, but also had to deal with problems caused by the grease being carried by other trams and ending up on overhead lines all over the system and even on the neighbouring Lytham St Annes Tramway.  
Further Expansion
In the late 1920's, the tramline was extended southwards past the Pleasure Beach, along the South Promenade to Starr Gate, thus Lytham Road and the Prom were now connected in a third place, by connecting the prom line at Clifton Drive (One stop before the present terminus - Starr Gate) where the junction connected to the line along Squires Gate Lane towards Squires Gate and also connected the Promenade line to the St Annes Track.